28 The Israel Chemist and Chemical Engineer Issue 9 · January 2023 · Tevet 5783 History of Chemistry Articles 3. C. Milstein, BioEssays, 1999, 21, 966–973. 4. “César Milstein, Wolf Prize Laureate in Medicine,” Wolf Foundation. https://wolffund.org.il/2018/12/09/cesar-milstein/. 5. “The Rabbi Shai Shacknai Award,” The Concern Foundation Laboratories,The Lautenberg Center for Cancer Research. https:// lautenbergcenter.org/the-lautenberg-center/shai-shaknai-award/. 6. “The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984,” NobelPrize. org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. https://www.nobelprize.org/ prizes/medicine/1984/summary/. 7. T. A. Springer, Nature Immunology, 2002, 3, 501-503. 8. A. Fraile, Director, La Historia De Un Fueguito [The Story of a Little Fire, version released by the MRC LMB]. [Film]. Argentina: el Pulpo Producciones, Fudetic. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=bz6o0WvI_sE, 2007. 9. “Jewish Virtual Library, Baron Maurice de Hirsch,” AmericanIsraeli Cooperative Enterprise. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary. org/baron-maurice-de-hirsch. 10. L. Marks, “The Story of César Milstein and Monoclonal Ant ibodies ,” What isBiotechnology.org. , ht tp://www. whatisbiotechnology.org/exhibitions/milstein. 11. D. Warmflash, “César Milstein: Hybridoma Cells to Create Monoclonal Antibodies,” Vision Learning. https://www. visionlearning.com/en/library/Inside-Science/58/C%C3%A9sarMilstein/220. 12. P. Kreimer and M. Lugones, Minerva, 2003, 41, 47–69. 13. A. Fraile, Director, Un fueguito, la Historia de Cesar Milstein [A Little Fire, the Story of César Milstein]. [Film]. Argentina: Pulpofilms, 2009. 14. M. S. Neuberger and B. A. Askonas, “César Milstein CH,” Biogr. Mems. Fell. R. Soc., 2005, 51, 267–289. 15. I. Hargittai, “César Milstein,” in Candid Science II, London, Imperial College, 2002, 220–237. 16. C. Milstein, “Messing about with isotopes and enzymes and antibodies, The Thirteenth Lynen Lecture,” in From Gene to Protein, New York, Academic Pr., 1982, 3–24. 17. Office of the President, “2021 – Year of Tribute to the Nobel Prize in Medicine to Dr. César Milstein, Decree 18/2021,” Official Bulletin of the Republic of Argentina, 14 January 2021. antibody diversity, and arose from a practical need, namely to have an antibody secreting cell line that was suitable for studies of somatic mutation of antibody genes.”  Argentina declared 2021 as year of tribute to César Milstein The President of Argentina declared 2021 as the year of tribute to Milstein. This is in context of the World Health Organization declaration of the role of scientific research as a tool against the Covid-19 pandemic. This marked the 60th anniversary of Milstein’s return to Argentina when he was appointed Head of the Department of Molecular Biology of the Carlos Malbrán National Institute of Microbiology. Declaration: “That the legacy of Dr. CésarMilstein transcended the borders of the country, and his discovery of monoclonal antibodies set a milestone in the history of medicine and influenced various specialties such as immunology, oncology, biotechnology, as well as the industry. “As a result of these findings, in recent years it was possible to develop various innovative drugs, such as drugs to prevent transplant rejections, passive immunization for respiratory syncytial virus, therapies for asthma and for immunemediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn’s disease or hidradenitis suppurativa, and improved survival rates and quality of life for cancer patients. “Dr. Milstein maintained a deep commitment to science and promoted universal access and availability of knowledge for the benefit of society as a whole, renouncing personal economic benefits and rewards.”  References 1. G. Köhler and C. Milstein, Nature, 1975, 256, 495–497. 2. M. Leider andM. Rosenblum, Journal of InvestigativeDermatology, 1947, 9, 213–218.